Minggu, 22 Mei 2016

Evolution Of Print Journalism In The World


Evolution Of Print Journalism
• In the 10th century handmade press was first established. Book printing was started in 15th &16th Century in Europe. • The emergence of Print Media created doubts in the minds of the rulers and they took it as a threat against their rule. The rulers presumed that people would become aware of their rights and they will challenge the authority. So most of the rulers in Europe took it as a revolt and declared capital punishment for the persons involved in Mass Media. In 1663, the last capital punishment was given to a publisher because he published a book of an anonymous writer. This book contained the idea that rulers are accountable for their deeds and decisions to the masses and if any ruler does not feel himself accountable then masses have the right to overthrow his rule. This was the last capital punishment that was awarded in the history of England. • Print media could not get its full growth till the 18th century as illiteracy was the major problem in all the societies and most of the newspapers were read by the elite class because state was not responsible for the education of the masses and elites had a privilege to get private education from the arranged tutors. • The first newspaper which was in printed form published in 1642 in England. The first magazine of the world published in 1704 in London with the first issue of a small periodical called The “Review”.• In the sub-continent East India Company started the first newspaper in 1780, some papers that were in English language and mostly read by the employees of the East-India company. In 1757 when East India Company conquered Bengal, there were one lac informal institutions that were either run by Hindu Pandits or Muslim Ulamas. So publishing papers entirely in English language means that they ignored the factor of local educated people. Later on the English papers started to publish in Madras, Bombay and Calcutta because East India Company offices were in all these cities. So, it proved that publish of this paper was entirely for Company employees and not for the local Indians.

In 1822, first Urdu paper named Jam-e-Jahanuma whose editor Munshi Sada Sikh emerged and English rulers took it as a threat against them and they started to think to impose press laws to outclass local papers. Therefore, in1823 Press Act came to suppress Urdu press and it was made compulsory that the name of the Editor, Publisher and Owner along with the address should be on the first page of the newspaper .So that the government can recognize the authority of these papers. It was named as Press & Publication Ordinance (PPO). So, the era before the division of India was a tough one for the mass communication as many press owners and editors faced punishments several times under this Ordinance.
Magazine:Magazines, periodicals or serials are publications, generally published on a regular schedule, containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising, by a purchase price, or both.
Frequency of a Magazine: Three days, Weekly, Monthly, Annually.

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